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1 Pituitary and Neuroendocrinology

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New mechanisms

Mechanism update

New mouse model

New clinical investigation

Reviews

2 Antenatal and Neonatal Endocrinology

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Neonatal Hypoglycaemia

A novel disorder of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and polycystic kidneys

International consensus on Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

Mutations in the FOXA2 gene link beta cell dysfunction with Hypopituitarism

Atypical forms of congenital hyperinsulinism are associated with increased expression of the transcription factor NKX2.2 and increased numbers of somatostain secreting cells

Prophylatic dextrose gel for newborns at risk of hypoglycaemia does not reduce the admission rates to NICU

Dextrose gel and breast feeding should be considered first-line oral treatment of infants with hypoglycemia

MEHMO syndrome is a novel X-linked retardation syndrome associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia, hypopituitarism and early onset diabetes mellitus

Neonatal diabetes mellitus

FOXP3 mutations lead to early onset diabetes mellitus with no other clinical manifestations

Neonatal diabetes with autoimmunity can be associated with LRBA Mutations

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Neonatal and long-term consequences

Primary cells isolated from the umbilical cord of offspring born to mothers with GDM maintain metabolic and molecular imprints of maternal hyperglycemia

Review focussing on the short- and long-term consequences of exposure to hyperglycaema in utero

Gestational weight gain above certain recommendations is associated with adverse outome for both child and mother

Maternal obesity

Maternal obesity impacts placental lipid metabolism leading to increased lipid accumulation

Maternal obesity induces embryonic defects by affecting the levels of DPPA3 gene in mice

Impact of diet on central inflammatory response

Dietary composition, age, and sex determine the central inflammatory response associated with the long-term outcomes of excess weight gain

Islet dysfunction in IUGR rats: Novel insights

Novel mechanisms of islet dysfunction in intrauterine growth restricted rats

miRNA’s and Placental function

Placental miRNAs dysregulation in maternal obesity may be involved in mediating growth-promoting effects in offspring of obese mothers

PCOS, Metformin and big heads

Overweight PCOS mothers treated with Metformin give birth to offspring with larger heads

3 Thyroid

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Thyroid development

Mechanisms of the year

Follow-up paper from Yearbook 2012

Maternal thyroid disease during pregnancy

Congenital hypothyroidism

Graves’ disease

Pediatric thyroid cancer

Thyroid stem cells

ATA Scientific statement

Post-Fukushima thyroid cancer risk

Reviews

4 Growth and Growth Factors

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Important for clinical practice

New therapeutic options

Novel insights into Silver-Russell syndrome

New perspectives

New mechanisms

New paradigms

5 Bone, Growth Plate and Mineral Metabolism

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New and repurposed therapies

New genes and gene mutations

Towards evidence-based vitamin D supplementation

Fractures, vitamin D and steroids – unclear associations

Life-long skeletal consequences of delayed puberty

Growth velocity as a laboratory parameter

GNAS and subcutaneous ossifications

Klotho in the control of osteocyte activity

Live insights to growth plate biology

Of poodles and danes

6 Gender Dysphoria and Disorders of Sex Development

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Gender dysphoria: New mechanisms

Important for clinical practice

Position paper

New treatments

New hope

Food for thought

Disorders of Sex Development: New paradigm

New function of old genes

When should an extensive genetic investigation be performed?

Psychological aspects

Reviews of clinical importance

7 PUBERTY

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New concept: Epigenetic control of puberty

Review: Epigenetic control of female puberty

Adolescence and behavior

Genetic variants and timing of puberty

Genetic architecture of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and delayed puberty

New genes in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Kisspeptin and puberty

Secular trends and Turner syndrome

8 Adrenals

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Mechanism of the Year

New Mechanisms

Important for Clinical Practice

Clinical Trials – New Treatments

New Genes

New Hope

New Concerns

New Paradigms

Reviews

Food for thought

9 Oncology and chronic disease

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Late consequences of tumour therapy: prevention and monitoring

Late effects of tumour therapy: molecular evidences of premature cellular aging

Late effects of tumour therapy: good and bad news on prevention strategies

Growth, growth hormone and puberty in chronic diseases: novel insights from clinical practice

Biologic agents in chronic inflammatory diseases: lights and shadows

Bone health monitoring in chronic disease: broaden existing knowledge

Late-effects of non-therapeutic radiation on thyroid: the history of atomic bomb survivors

10 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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Aetiology and heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes

Continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pumps and artificial pancreas

Comorbidities – short and long-term complications

Psychology and quality of life

Prevention

Therapy and interventions

11 Obesity and Weight Regulation

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Estimation of target weight

New insight into obesity comorbidities

New Developments in Monogenic Obesity

The brain decides weight gain

Smelling, tasting and weight gain

Hungry fat cells

Adipose tissue – a main source of miRNAs

BAT: The story goes on

Prebiotics reduce fat mass

Bariatric surgery – new findings

Diet and the genes

12 Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Lipid Metabolism

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Type 2 diabetes: Important for clinical practice

New Paradigm

New Mechanism

Concepts revised

Metabolic syndrome

New Paradigm

New Mechanism

Important for clinical practice

New Hormones

New Imaging

Review of the year

Hyperlipidemia

New treatments

Important for clinical practice

New Genes

New Concerns

13 Global Health for the Paediatric Endocrinologist

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How does paediatric endocrinology and diabetes fit in the global initiatives?

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Resource-Limited Settings

Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Congenital Hypothyroidism

Growth and Development

14 Science and Medicine

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Why do women have more autoimmune disease than men?

And why do women live longer?

Sow during infancy and reap later

Gut flora is shaped by the environment

We are roundheads

Eat healthily to save the planet

Imprinting without DNA methylation

The ancient wisdom of refraining from consanguinity

CRISPR-Cas9 gene therapy

DNA-independent gene editing

The ‘nocebo’ effect: psychogenic but truly harmful

The nature of scientific progress

Reliable evidence on mouse knock-outs

Nurtured by our parent’s genes

Evolutionary public health

Who could have predicted it?

Be careful what your friends think

15 Editor’s Choice

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Seeing is believing: childhood overweight and obesity

Global burden of obesity

Interventions for overweight and obesity do work

Antibiotic exposure and obesity

New treatments

New mechanisms: food aversion

New data: hormonal contraception and breast cancer

Slow down and think!

Be careful what you feed them

Obesity must be studied separately in men and women

The importance of being earnest about diurnal variation

Memories that persist into adulthood

How dangerous is Bisphenol A really?

Emerging adulthood

Neanderthal's’ child growth