The frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has markedly increased in the pediatric age group since the end of the 20th century. Risk-based recommendations for screening for prediabetes and T2DM have been assessed. Another approach to identifying adolescents with T2DM uses metabolomic profiling. Decreased bone mineral density was added to the multitude of complications described with a high frequency in adolescents with T2DM. Furthermore, one-fifth of adolescents with T2DM reported elevated depressive symptoms and one-fifth admit thoughts of self-harm. Depression and obesity were found to be associated with lower fluid cognition in adolescents with T2DM. Immigration was found to be a strong risk factor for early-onset T2DM.
Poor outcomes of individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and T2DM during the COVID-19 pandemic were found to be related to socioeconomic inequalities. Excess consumption of sugar has been implicated in the global epidemic of obesity and MetS. Sugar was demonstrated to fuel the purine degradation pathway, leading to the accumulation of uric acid as kidney stones. The green Mediterranean diet was found to improve MetS parameters in adults; while among adolescents, a high protein/low glycaemic diet was not found to affect insulin resistance.