The selection of papers in this chapter focused on clinical research, as major advancements in the pathophysiology, diagnostic work-up, management and treatment of growth disorders have been reported in 202021. The new cut-off values of blood GH concentrations for diagnosis of GH deficiency in the newborn, the insights into the phenotype and therapeutic response to rhGH in patients with NPR2 mutations, the individualisation of the optimal timing for GH retesting, and the evidence-based assessment of the beneficial effects of rhGH therapy in children with PraderWilli syndrome, will likely have an impact on clinical practice. A bunch of papers deal with the still controversial issue of the long-term safety of rhGH therapy. The observation of growth impairment in patients with anorexia nervosa, the natural history of patients with NPR2 mutations, and the elucidation of the genetic architecture underlying familial short stature and SGA open new perspectives for research and management of these conditions. Finally, the genetic approach to the prediction of individual responses to rhGH therapy and the discovery of collagen pathogenic gene variants underlying some cases of familial short stature represent new paradigms in the field.