ISSN 1662-4009 (online)

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Yearbook of Paediatric Endocrinology 2021

ey0018.10-1 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.1. Did the COVID-19 lockdown affect the incidence of pediatric type 1 diabetes in Germany?

SR Tittel , J Rosenbauer , C Kamrath , J Ziegler , F Reschke , J Hammersen , K Monkemoller , A Pappa , T Kapellen , RW Holl , Initiative DPV

Diabetes Care. 2020;43(11):e172–e173. doi: 10.2337/dc20-1633During the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, the DPV (the German diabetes registry database) study group asked whether or not the COVID-19 lockdown had affected the incidence of pediatric T1D in Germany (1). More than 210 German pediatric diabetes centers contributed their data on pediatric patients with T1D with an onset at ag...

ey0018.10-2 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.2. Impact of lockdown in COVID-19 on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

A Verma , R Rajput , S Verma , VKB Balania , B Jangra

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14(5):1213–1216. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.07.016In this small cross-sectional study on 52 pediactric patients with T1D, a structured questionnaire was administered on follow up within 15 days after lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of these 52 patients, 36.5% had hyperglycemic and 15.3% had hypoglycemic episodes. Insulin dose was missed in 26.9%, gluco...

ey0018.10-3 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.3. Caring for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED) statements during COVID-19 pandemia

G d'Annunzio , C Maffeis , V Cherubini , I Rabbone , A Scaramuzza , R Schiaffini , N Minuto , G Piccolo , M Maghnie

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;168:108372. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108372Here, the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology carried out a literature search in Medline and Embase and also Diabetes Societies websites until May 21st, 2020 for guidelines and recommendations on T1D management during the COVID-19 pandemic. They state that there is currently no evidenc...

ey0018.10-4 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.4. Extended family history of type 1 diabetes in HLA-predisposed children with and without islet autoantibodies

S Kuusela , P Keskinen , T Pokka , M Knip , J Ilonen , P Vahasalo , R Veijola

Pediatr Diabetes. 2020;21(8):1447–1456. doi: 10.1111/pedi.13122Family histories suggest strong degrees of inheritance of T1D in some children, especially in populations with an overall high risk of autoimmunity.This paper from the Finnish T1D Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study looked at subjects carrying high HLA-conferred risk for T1D. A family history of T1D in...

ey0018.10-5 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.5. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and its oral tolerance therapy

RF Mao , YY Chen , J Zhang , X Chang , YF Wang

World J Diabetes. 2020;11(10):400–415. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v11.i10.400Based on a review of the proposed mechanisms of the development of T1DM, the authors provide an overview of oral tolerance therapies for T1DM conducted in both animal models and clinical trials. This key paper also outlines its future perspectives.As a mainly T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, T...

ey0018.10-6 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.6. Yield of a public health screening of children for islet autoantibodies in Bavaria, Germany

A Ziegler , K Kick , E Bonifacio , F Haupt , M Hippich , D Dunstheimer , M Lang , O Laub , K Warncke , K Lange , R Assfalg , M Jolink , C Winkler , P Achenbach , Fr1da Study Group

JAMA. 2020;323(4):339–351. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.21565This study aimed to determine the prevalence of pre-symptomatic T1D in young children participating in a public health screening program for islet autoantibodies and the risk for progression to clinical T1D in children carrying multiple autoantibodies. On screening, 0.03% were found to have clinical T1D. Of the 0.31% who were foun...

ey0018.10-7 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.7. Circulating metabolites in progression to islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes

S Lamichhane , E Kemppainen , K Trošt , H Siljander , H Hyoty , J Ilonen , J Toppari , R Veijola , T Hyotylainen , M Knip , M Orešič

Diabetologia. 2019;62(12):2287–2297. doi: 10.1007/s00125-019-04980-0This study identified different circulatory metabolite profiles in children who subsequently progress to T1D compared to children who progress to islet autoimmunity but not T1D, and antibody-negative control children.In addition to altered T cell immunity and autoantibody appearance, metaboli...

ey0018.10-8 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.8. Absence of islet autoantibodies and modestly raised glucose values at diabetes diagnosis should Lead to testing for MODY: lessons from a 5-year pediatric Swedish National Cohort study

A Carlsson , M Shepherd , S Ellard , M Weedon , A Lernmark , G Forsander , K Colclough , Q Brahimi , C Valtonen-Andre , SA Ivarsson , H Elding Larsson , U Samuelsson , E Ortqvist , L Groop , J Ludvigsson , C Marcus , AT Hattersley

Diabetes Care. 2020; 43:82–89. doi: 10.2337/dc19-0747.It is often difficult to identify maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in pediatric patients close to diabetes onset. Hence, misdiagnosis and unnecessary insulin treatment are still common.This study reports the discriminatory clinical features at diabetes onset in Swedish pediatric patients (age 1–18 y...

ey0018.10-9 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in childhood and risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes: the TRIGR nested case-control ancillary study

ME Miettinen , S Niinisto , I Erlund , D Cuthbertson , AM Nucci , J Honkanen , O Vaarala , H Hyoty , JP Krischer , M Knip

Diabetologia. 2020;63(4):780–787. doi: 10.1007/s00125-019-05077-4.This multicenter multinational study, in children with high genetic risk of T1D, identified an association between lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations and subsequent appearance of islet autoimmunity or T1D.The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) ancillary ...

ey0018.10-10 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.10. Risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts in emerging adults with diabetes

ME Robinson , M Simard , I Larocque , J Shah , M Nakhla , E Rahme

Diabetes Care. 2020;43(2):484–486. doi: 10.2337/dc19-1487.This retrospective study in Quebec, Canada included 3,544 adolescents and young adults with diabetes and 1 388 397 without diabetes. It concludes that between the ages of 15 and 25 years, the risks of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts were substantially higher in adolescents and young adults with diabetes than those without ...

ey0018.10-11 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.11. Use of factory-calibrated real-time continuous glucose monitoring improves time in target and HbA1c in a multiethnic cohort of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: the MILLENNIALS study

H Thabit , JN Prabhu , W Mubita , C Fullwood , S Azmi , A Urwin , I Doughty , L Leelarathna

Diabetes Care. 2020;43(10):2537–2543. doi: 10.2337/dc20-0736.This paper describes a randomized crossover trial in young people with T1D (16–24 years old) comparing two 8-week study periods: the factory-calibrated Dexcom G6 CGM system versus routine self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). CGM improved time within glucose target and reduced HbA1c by 0.76%.The prim...

ey0018.10-12 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.12. Cognitive function following diabetic ketoacidosis in children with new-onset or previously diagnosed type 1 diabetes

S Ghetti , N Kuppermann , A Rewers , SR Myers , JE Schunk , MJ Stoner , A Garro , KS Quayle , KM Brown , JL Trainor , L Tzimenatos , AD De Piero , JK McManemy , LE Nigrovic , MY Kwok , CS 3rd Perry , CS Olsen , TC Casper , NS; Pediatric emergency care applied research network (PECARN) DKA FLUID study group Glaser

Diabetes Care. 2020;43(11):2768–2775. doi: 10.2337/dc20-0187.In this observational analysis of a patient cohort, a single diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) episode was associated with lower cognition and memory both in children with newly diagnosed T1D and in children with known T1D.Children (N=758) were 6-18 years old, taking part in a multisite randomized trial e...

ey0018.10-13 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.13. Type 1 diabetes can present before the age of 6 months and is characterized by autoimmunity and rapid loss of beta cells

MB Johnson , KA Patel , E De Franco , W Hagopian , M Killian , TJ McDonald , TIM Tree , C Domingo-Vila , M Hudson , S Hammersley , R; EXE-T1D Consortium Dobbs , S Ellard , SE Flanagan , AT Hattersley , RA Oram

Diabetologia. 2020;63(12):2605–2615. doi: 10.1007/s00125-020-05276-4.Diabetes diagnosed at <6 months of age is often of monogenic origin. However, 10-15% of affected infants do not have a pathogenic variant in one of the 26 known neonatal diabetes genes. In this study, 166 infants diagnosed at <6 months of age without such pathogenic variants showed all the the classic feat...

ey0018.10-14 | (1) | ESPEYB18

10.14. Targeted pharmacological therapy restores [beta]-cell function for diabetes remission

S Sachs , A Bastidas-Ponce , S Tritschler , M Bakhti , A Bottcher , MA Sanchez-Garrido , M Tarquis-Medina , M Kleinert , K Fischer , S Jall , A Harger , E Bader , S Roscioni , S Ussar , A Feuchtinger , B Yesildag , A Neelakandhan , CB Jensen , M Cornu , B Yang , B Finan , RD Di Marchi , MH Tschop , FJ Theis , SM Hofmann , TD Muller , H Lickert

Nature Metabolism. 2020;2(2):192–209. doi: 10.1038/s42255-020-0171-3.This experimental mouse study examined whether or not dedifferentiated β cells could be reversed or targeted by pharmacological intervention for diabetes remission. They identified evidence for β-cell dedifferentiation and dysfunction which could be reversed by single and combined pharmacological approach...