ISSN 1662-4009 (online)

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Yearbook of Paediatric Endocrinology 2021

ey0018.15-1 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.1. Analysis of overlapping genetic association in type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Inshaw Jamie RJ , Sidore Carlo , Cucca Francesco , Stefana M Irina , Crouch Daniel JM , McCarthy Mark I , Mahajan Anubha , Todd John A

Diabetologia. 2021 Jun;64(6):1342–1347. 10.1007/s00125-021-05428-0. studying data from very large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European ancestry individuals, the authors compared genetic signals that confer risk of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Only 5 signals ...

ey0018.15-2 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.2. Interpreting type 1 diabetes risk with genetics and single-cell epigenomics

Chiou Joshua , Geusz Ryan J , Okino Mei-Lin , Han Jee Yun , Miller Michael , Melton Rebecca , Beebe Elisha , Benaglio Paola , Huang Serina , Korgaonkar Katha , Heller Sandra , Kleger Alexander , Preissl Sebastian , Gorkin David U , Sander Maike , Gaulton Kyle J

Nature. 2021 volume 594, 398–402 authors report a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in 18 942 cases and 501 638 controls, finding 92 T1D-associated genomic loci (59 known and 33 novel). Furthermore they analyse DNA chromatin patterns in pancreas and peripheral white blood cells to help ident...

ey0018.15-3 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.3. Metabolic effects of late dinner in healthy volunteers - a randomized crossover clinical trial

Gu Chenjuan , Brereton Nga , Schweitzer Amy , Cotter Matthew , Duan Daisy , Borsheim Elisabet , Wolfe Robert R , Pham Luu V , Polotsky Vsevolod Y , Jun Jonathan C

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2020. Vol 105(8), 2789–2802. doi: authors performed a randomized crossover trial of Late Dinner (22:00 hours) vs Routine Dinner (18:00) in a laboratory setting in 20 healthy adult volunteers. Meal contents and sleep period (23:00-07:00) were kept the same in both arms and sleep patterns were u...

ey0018.15-4 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.4. Ketoacidosis in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany

Kamrath Clemens , Monkemoller Kirsten , Biester Torben , Rohrer Tilman R , Warncke Katharina , Hammersen Johanna , Holl Reinhard W

JAMA. 2020;324(8):801–804. authors analysed data from the German Diabetes Prospective Follow-up Registry (DPV) of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) between March 13 to May 13, 2020, when most kindergartens and schools in Germany were closed due to COVID-19 restrictions. Compared to the previou...

ey0018.15-5 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.5. Effect of school-based body mass index reporting in California public schools: a randomized clinical trial

Madsen Kristine A , Thompson Hannah R , Linchey Jennifer , Ritchie Lorrene D , Gupta Shalika , Neumark-Sztainer Dianne , Crawford Patricia B , McCulloch Charles E , Ibarra-Castro Ana

JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(3):251–259. authors report a cluster randomized clinical trial in 79 California schools, involving 28,641 students in grades 3 to 8. The intervention comprised school measurements of BMI and sending the results to parents, but this had no effect on BMI Z-sco...

ey0018.15-6 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.6. The gut-brain axis mediates sugar preference

Tan Hwei-Ee , Sisti Alexander C , Jin Hao , Vignovich Martin , Villavicencio Miguel , Tsang Katherine S , Goffer Yossef , Zuker Charles S

Nature, 2020. 580, 511–516. The authors identify in mice a population of neurons in the vagal ganglia and brainstem that are activated by the direct delivery of sugar but not artificial sweeteners to the gut. They genetically engineered changes in this gut-to-brain circuit. Silencing of synaptic activity in this circuit prevented...

ey0018.15-7 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.7. A placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous semaglutide in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

Newsome Philip N , Buchholtz Kristine , Cusi Kenneth , Linder Martin , Okanoue Takeshi , Ratziu Vlad , Sanyal Arun J , Sejling Anne-Sophie , Harrison Stephen A

N Engl J Med 2021; 384:1113–1124. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2028395 authors report a 72-week, double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 320 adult patients with biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis (stage F1, F2, or F3). Patients were randomly assig...

ey0018.15-8 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.8. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women

Verdiesen Renee MG , Onland-Moret N Charlotte , van Gils Carla H , Stellato Rebecca K , Spijkerman Annemieke MW , Picavet H Susan J , Broekmans Frank JM , Verschuren WM Monique , van der Schouw Yvonne T

Diabetologia, 2021; 64, 375–384. authors measured plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels over 2x 5-year intervals in a prospective cohort study of 3293 healthy women aged 20–59 years at baseline. Lower baseline age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher risk of Type 2 di...

ey0018.15-9 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.9. Oxytocin administration increases proactive control in men with overweight or obesity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

Plessow Franziska , Marengi Dean A , Perry Sylvia K , Lawson Elizabeth A

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 Jan;29(1):56–61. was investigated in this small experimental study for its potential benefits on obesity. To test oxytocin for suppression of behavioural impulses, 10 men with overweight or obesity were subjected to a task assessing ability and strategy to suppress behavioural impulses. After receiving intranasal oxytocin, compared with placebo, ...

ey0018.15-10 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.10. Maternal occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during pregnancy and semen parameters in adulthood: results of a nationwide cross-sectional study among Swiss conscripts

Istvan M , Rahban R , Dananche B , Senn A , Stettler E , Multigner L , Nef S , Garlantezec R

Human Reproduction, 2021; 36(7): 1948–1958 cross-sectional study shows that men who had been exposed in utero to endocrine disruptors (EDC) are twice more likely to have a low sperm count, below the reference values per ejaculation set by the World Health Organisation.Male reproductive function is known to be highly sensitive to a number of chemical compou...

ey0018.15-11 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.11. Prediction of adult height by machine learning technique

Shmoish Michael , German Alina , Devir Nurit , Hecht Anna , Butler Gary , Niklasson Aimon , Albertsson-Wikland Kerstin , Hochberg Ze'ev

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021; 16;106(7):e2700–e2710.PMID: 33606028 doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab093This paper illustrates the power of machine learning to successfully predict adult height using growth measurements before age 6 years, without the need for bone age.Computers beat us in games of predictions, such as chess. They beat us also in the exercise of predictin...

ey0018.15-12 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.12. Hormone seasonality in medical records suggests circannual endocrine circuits

Tendler Avichai , Bar Alon , Mendelsohn-Cohen Netta , Karin Omer , Kohanim Yael Korem , Maimon Lior , Milo Tomer , Raz Moriya , Mayo Avi , Tana Amos , Uri Alon

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2021; 118 (7) e2003926118 analysing data from Israeli health records, including millions of hormone blood tests, the authors find peaks during winter−spring in the circulating levels of all primary hormones involved in human growth, stress, metabolism and reproduction. By contrast, the pituitary-derived regulatory hormones peak in summer. This circannual c...

ey0018.15-13 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.13. Socioeconomic status is related to pubertal development in a German cohort

L Oelkers , M Vogel , A Kalenda , HC Surup , A Korner , J Kratzsch , W Kiess

Hormone Research in Paediatrics 2020;93:548–557 authors studied 2,657 German children aged 5-18 years to look for social patterning in the age at puberty timing and circulating gonadotrophin levels. Lower socio-economic status (SES) was associated with earlier thelarche, longer duration of puberty, and overweight in girls, but not age at menarche. In boys, lower SES showed a tren...

ey0018.15-14 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.14. First-in-class humanized FSH blocking antibody targets bone and fat

S Gera , D Sant , S Haider , F Korkmaz , TC Kuo , M Mathew , H Perez-Pen , H Xie , H Chen , R Batista , K Ma

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020, Nov; 117(46): 28971–28979 authors report the generation, structure and function of a fully humanized, humanized antibody that profoundly inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) actions in cell-based assays. Administration of the antibody to ovariectomized mice prevented bone loss and also accumulation of adipose tissue when fed a high-fat diet (H...

ey0018.15-15 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.15. The cellular basis of distinct thirst modalities

Pool Allan-Hermann , Wang Tongtong , Stafford David A , Chance Rebecca K , Lee Sangjun , Ngai John , Oka Yuki

Nature 2020 Dec; 588(7836): 112–117 is sensed by two distinct types of stimuli – osmotic and hypovolaemic. The authors show that in mice these two stimuli act via separate mechanisms and neuron types, and lead to distinct drinking behavioural responses. High blood osmolality induces osmotic thirst that drives water consumption. By contrast, hypovolaemia driv...

ey0018.15-16 | (1) | ESPEYB18

15.16. The effects of 20-kDa human placental GH in male and female GH-deficient mice: an improved human GH?

List Edward O , Berryman Darlene E , Basu Reetobrata , Buchman Mathew , Funk Kevin , Kulkarni Prateek , Duran-Ortiz Silvana , Qian Yanrong , Jensen Elizabeth A , Young Jonathan A , Yildirim Gozde , Yakar Shoshana , Kopchick John J

Endocrinology 2020 Aug 1;161(8):bqaa097. study, in a GH-deficient mouse model, shows that a 20-kDa variant of placental GH (20k-GH-V) retains the growth-promoting effects of normal pituitary-derived GH (GH-N), but with the advantages of having no diabetogenic or prolactin receptor (PRLR)-mediated tumour-promoting effects.One of the first described actions of GH...